A COMPETITION LAW SCRUTINY – The RMLNLU Regulation Assessment Weblog

By: Tapamoy Ghose


HDFC Ltd, a mortgage lender, introduced a merger with HDFC Financial institution on April 4, 2022. Based on HDFC Financial institution, the merger is topic to varied statutory and regulatory approvals, together with these from the Competitors Fee of India (CCI), the Nationwide Firm Regulation Tribunal (NCLT), different relevant authorities, and the businesses’ respective shareholders and collectors.

HDFC Ltd is India’s main housing finance firm, with unparalleled relationships, scale, and underwriting experience within the housing sector. However, with over 68 million prospects, 6,342 branches, and a complete portfolio of credit score, legal responsibility, and distribution choices, HDFC Financial institution is the main non-public sector financial institution with a deep buyer base developed over a number of a long time. After this merger, the proposed entity can have a complete asset base of roughly Rupees 18 lakh crores.


When an enterprise, which is already in a dominant place in a related market, engages in actions to eradicate different rivals or discourage future rivals from coming into the market, it’s known as abuse of dominance. Three components are required to ascertain an abuse of dominance: a dominant enterprise, a related market, and an anti-competitive conduct.

The dominance of an enterprise (on this case, HDFC Financial institution) can solely be decided throughout the boundaries of the related market. The CCI held in Shri Pravahan Mohanty v. HDFC Financial institution Restricted that figuring out the related product market is important when figuring out a dominant place.

Based on Part 2

  • HDFC Bbaby: A Classic Cace of Dominance

Clarification (a) beneath Sec. 4(2) definition of “dominant place” as “a place of energy loved by an enterprise within the related market in India that allows it to function independently of aggressive forces prevailing within the related market; or have an effect on its rivals, customers, or the related market in its favorite.” To find out an enterprise’s dominant place, the Fee could think about the components set out in Part 19(4) of the Act: market share, financial energy or entry barrier and so forth.

The entity’s financial energy is an element of dominance underneath S. 19(4)(d) of the Act. An enterprise’s financial efficiency could also be an element indicating dominance. The EU Fee in Server thought of Servier’s substantial ‘financial rents’ to be direct proof of its dominance. Following the identical, in instances equivalent to Michelin, an entity’s monetary energy and profitability have been held to be an element of dominance. Coming to the profitability side, within the monetary yr of 2022 (FY 22), HDFC financial institution recorded a revenue of almost 38150 Crore, the best of all of the banks in India (public sector banks and personal sector banks mixed). It should be famous that, prior to now, within the EU, the Fee has based mostly the discovering of dominance on the profitability of the entity, notably in Intel.

Transferring to the monetary energy of the entity, HDFC Financial institution scores excessive once more. A research by Normal and Poor, a famend international score company, confirmed that the Financial institution poses ample capital buffer and tier 1 capital ratio, in addition to an array of belongings superior to some other rivals within the business. This is a sign of the sturdy monetary energy which HDFC presently enjoys.

Final however not least, the link-up between two entities will also be an element of dominance. The EU Basic Court docket dominated in France Telecom that Wanadoo’s ‘link-up’ with France Télécom (HDFC Restricted and HDFC Financial institution in our context) gave it such benefits over its rivals that it contributed to its dominance. Equally, the link-up between HDFC Restricted and HDFC Financial institution would supply sure strategic advantages to HDFC Financial institution within the housing mortgage phase (which might be substantiated within the following part), thereby contributing to dominance. If the CCI is apprehensive that ‘link-up’ as an element is just not lined underneath any clauses in S. 19(4), they’ll learn the identical underneath S. 19(4)(m), because it permits the authority to think about some other issue if the state of affairs requires.

All these cumulative components taken collectively, HDFC Financial institution, might be regarded to be a dominant participant within the related market.


Abuse of dominant place happens when an enterprise makes use of its dominant place in a single related market to enter or shield a dominant place in one other related market. The enterprise could also be dominant in a single market however not in one other, but it surely makes use of its dominance to affect competitors within the latter. That habits within the non-dominated market is an abuse of its dominant market place. It assumes a hyperlink between the dominant place and the abusive behaviour, which isn’t normally current when conduct in a market distinct from the dominated market impacts the distinct market.

The merger of HDFC Restricted and HDFC Financial institution will alter credit score composition within the banking sector, rising house loans to one-fifth of complete financial institution credit score. HDFC Financial institution will be capable to broaden its housing mortgage portfolio as a result of impugned merger. The housing mortgage market is on the verge of a robust upswing, bolstered by advents of the actual property sector, providing a secure, secured asset class with very enticing risk-adapted returns. This can enhance HDFC Financial institution’s steadiness sheet dimension, permitting it to underwrite massive ticket-size loans within the housing mortgage phase.

Regardless of being a Banking large, HDFC Financial institution had a minuscule market share of two% out there for house loans. That’s set to alter now because the merger will present HDFC Financial institution with a singular alternative to leverage its community of branches in rural and semi-urban markets (roughly 50% of the branches are located in these areas). The Financial institution has an unlimited pool of low-cost funds out there, and by using the experience of HDFC Restricted, it is going to be capable of supply housing mortgage merchandise at a a lot lesser charge than its rivals. Beneath the federal government’s inexpensive housing initiatives, HDFC Restricted is a big participant in house loans to center and low-income teams. With the merger, HDFC Financial institution might faucet into such a market and supply cheaper house loans, using the pool of low-cost funds. This might be a traditional case of HDFC Financial institution leveraging its dominance to enter the housing mortgage market with the help of the merger. This might level to HDFC Financial institution’s potential skill to influence your complete housing mortgage market to the detriment of different rivals.

Not solely would the merger allow HDFC Financial institution to cement its place within the housing mortgage phase, however it could broaden the Financial institution’s buyer base additionally. Research have proven that 70% of the shoppers of HDFC Restricted do doesn’t have a banking relationship with HDFC Financial institution. Nevertheless, with the assistance of the merger, the financial institution would now be capable to cross-sell its banking product to the shoppers of HDFC Restricted as effectively, which is able to strengthen its buyer base finally, on the expense of different rivals.


Based on RBI knowledge, retail loans are the first supply of mortgage progress for the mortgage market, rising 14% yearly, whereas company loans declining 4% yearly. Market regulators just like the Competitors Fee of India (CCI) must be extra vigilant in detecting anti-competitive conduct in such a rising market. The impugned merger is presently pending the approval of the CCI. Whereas deliberating whether or not the merger must be accredited, CCI should undertake an impact-based evaluation. HDFC Restricted was a large within the housing mortgage business, and so is HDFC Financial institution within the banking sector. When two giants merge, ripples might be there, and CCI must be cautious sufficient to establish them in order that the market is secure.

(Tapamoy Ghose is a legislation undergraduate pursuing from Nationwide College of Superior Authorized Research, Kochi. He could also be contacted by way of mail at [email protected]).

Cite as: Tapamoy Ghose‘HDFC Financial institution and HDFC Ltd Merger: A Competitors Regulation Scrutiny’ (The Rmlnlu Regulation Assessment Weblog07 October 2022) date of entry.

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